Our petroleum testing laboratory can support petroleum products testing for oil refineries, power plant stations, fuel stations, fuel tank farms, organization, academic institution, or government agency in outsourcing independent, commercial contract oil, gasoline, petroleum, and petrochemical laboratories to do all the routine and non-routine oil, gasoline, petrochemical, biodiesel, alternative fuels, hydrocarbon and petroleum testing, surveys, analysis, experiments and research studies including ISO 8217 testing.
The dropping point of grease is the temperature at which the thickener can no longer hold the base oil. Grease is placed in a small cup and heated in an oven-like device. When a drop of oil falls from the lower opening of the cup, the dropping point of the grease is calculated using the temperatures in the oven and inside the cup.
For density, relative density (specific gravity) or API gravity determination of crude petroleum, liquid petroleum products and mixtures of petroleum and non-petroleum products. Conforming to the specifications of: ASTM E100 Applicable Test Method Standards: ASTM D287, D1298, D6074, D6158; API MPMS Chapter 9.1; IP 160; ISO 3675; DIN 51757
Aniline point is used to characterize pure hydrocarbons and to indicate the aromatic content of hydrocarbon mixtures. Equal volumes of aniline and sample or sample plus n-heptane are stirred together while being heated at a controlled rate. After the two phases become miscible, the mixture is cooled at a controlled rate and the temperature at which the two phases separate is the aniline point or mixed aniline point of the sample.
The Saybolt Colour test is used for quality control and product identification purposes on refined products having an ASTM Color of 0.5 or less. Products in this range include undyed motor and aviation gasolines, jet propulsion fuels, naphthas, kerosene and petroleum waxes. Color is an important quality characteristic for many products, and can also be used to detect product contamination. The Saybolt Chromometer measures color by comparing a column of sample against standard color discs. The Saybolt Wax Chromometer measures color of non-fluid waxes by heating the samples during the test.
The ASTM color of petroleum products applies to products having an ASTM color of 0.5 or darker, including lubricating oils, heating oils and diesel fuel oils. (For products having an ASTM color lighter than 0.5, use the Saybolt Chromometer, ASTM D156). To determine ASTM color, the sample is compared against standard color discs in the Petroleum Colorimeter.
The sample is evaporated and condensed under controlled conditions, and observations are made of the temperatures at which various percentages are recovered and/or the percentages recovered at specific temperatures.
Cetane number or CN is a measure of the combustion quality of diesel fuel via the compression ignition process. Cetane number is a significant expression of diesel fuel quality among a number of other measurements that determine overall diesel fuel quality. CN is actually a measure of a fuel's ignition delay [the time period between the start of injection and start of combustion (ignition) of the fuel]. In a particular diesel engine, higher cetane fuels will have shorter ignition delay periods than lower cetane fuels. CNs are only used for the relatively light distillate diesel oils.
Provides an indication of relative coke forming properties of petroleum oils. The residue remaining after a specified period of evaporation and pyrolysis is calculated as a percentage of the original sample. The carbon residue of a fuel is the tendency to form carbon deposits under high temperature conditions in an inert atmosphere. It may be expressed as Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR) or Micro Carbon Residue (MCR).
A knowledge of the sediment content of crude oils and fuel oils is important both to the operation of refining and the buying or selling of these commodities. The sediment content of crude oil and fuel oils is determined by extraction with toluene. Extract test portion of a representative oil sample, contained in a refractory thimble, with hot toluene until the residue reaches constant mass. The mass of residue, calculated as a percentage, is reported as sediment by extraction.
Foaming of lubricating oils in applications involving turbulence, high-speed gearing or high volume pumping can cause inadequate lubrication, cavitation, overflow and premature oxidation. The sample is blown with a controlled volume of air at different specified temperatures, including a newer high temperature test at 150°C. The resultant foam is measured at the end of each aeration period and at different intervals afterwards. In the high temperature test, the amount of time required for the foam to collapse to "0" after the aeration period is also measured.
The quantity of acid, expressed in terms of the equivalent number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide that is required to neutralize all basic constituents present in 1 gram of sample.
Cloud point is the temperature where the mixture starts to phase separate and two phases appear, thus becoming cloudy. The specimen is cooled at a specified rate and examined periodically. The temperature at which a cloud is first observed at the bottom of the test jar is recorded as the cloud point.
This test method covers the measurement of the ability of oil and water to separate from each other for lighter oils and synthetic fluids. Equal volumes of sample and distilled water are stirred together for 5 min at constant temperature. After a specified settling period, the degree of separation is measured by volume and the percentage of water in oil is determined.
The Pour point of a liquid is the lowest temperature at which it will remain pourable (meaning it still behaves as a fluid). After preliminary heating, the sample is cooled at a specified rate and examined at intervals of 3°C for flow characteristics. The lowest temperature at which movement of the specimen is observed is recorded as the pour point.
The Flash Point of a chemical is the lowest temperature at which a flame will propagate through the vapour of a combustible material to the liquid surface OR it is the minimum temperature at which the liquid produces a sufficient concentration of vapour above it that it forms an ignitable mixture with air.
Viscosity is the internal friction of a fluid or gas. Both have adjacent layers, and when pressure is applied, the friction between layers affects how much the substance will respond to external force. The time is measured for a fixed volume of liquid to flow under gravity through the capillary of a calibrated viscometer under a reproducible driving head and at a closely controlled and known temperature. The kinematic viscosity (determined value) is the product of the measured flow time and the calibration constant of the viscometer.
Knowledge of the water content of lubricating oils, additives, and similar products is important in the manufacturing, purchase, sale, or transfer of such petroleum products to help in predicting their quality and performance characteristics. An aliquot is injected into the titration vessel of a coulometric Karl Fischer apparatus in which iodine for the Karl Fisher reaction is generated coulometrically at the anode. When all of the water has been titrated, excess iodine is detected by an electrometric end point detector and the titration is terminated. Based on the stoichiometry of the reaction, 1 mol of iodine reacts with 1 mol of water; thus, the quantity of water is proportional to the total integrated current according to Faraday’s Law.
The quality of many petroleum products is related to the amount of sulfur present. Knowledge of sulfur concentration is necessary for processing purposes. The sample is placed in the beam emitted from an X-ray tube. The resultant excited characteristic X radiation is measured, and the accumulated count is compared with counts from previously prepared calibration samples to obtain the sulfur concentration in mass % and/or mg/kg.
Vapor pressure is critically important for both automotive and aviation gasolines, affecting starting, warmup, and tendency to vapor lock with high operating temperatures or high altitudes. Maximum vapor pressure limits for gasoline are legally mandated in some areas as a measure of air pollution control. The liquid chamber of the vapor pressure apparatus is filled with the chilled sample and connected to the vapor chamber that has been heated to 37.8°C (100°F) in a bath. The assembled apparatus is immersed in a bath at 37.8°C (100°F) until a constant pressure is observed. The reading, suitably corrected, is reported as the Reid vapor pressure.
Naturally, oil degrades with serving time and cause severe wear. Therefore, it is very important to detect the age of lubricating oil, which can reveal lubrication conditions and wear conditions as well. At specified high temperature, air is led to the sample to cause it to age. The aging characteristics of the lubricating oil is then determined.
Gum formed during fuel storage can deposit on induction system surfaces, intake valves, stems and guides. To test for gum content, a 50mL sample is evaporated in an aluminium block bath for a specified period under controlled conditions of temperature and flow of air (aviation and motor gasolines) or steam (aircraft turbine fuel).
The total acid number (TAN) is a measurement of acidity that is determined by the amount of potassium hydroxide in milligrams that is needed to neutralize the acids in one gram of oil. Boiling ethyl alcohol is used to extract acid components in samples. Then potassium hydroxide ethanol solution is used for titration.
Corrosion can occur in fuels from sulfur compounds, contamination during storage, or air and water from transporting through pipelines. By determining the corrosiveness of the fuel for different metals, potential failures can be controlled and monitored. Sensors in modern automotive fuel systems often use silver or silver alloys, which are susceptible to corrosion from sulfur in gasoline. A freshly polished silver strip is suspended in a specified volume of sample which is heated at a particular temperature and time, the silver strip is then removed, washed, and the color and tarnish level assessed to determine the corrosiveness of the fuel for silver.
When a lubricating grease separates oil, the remaining composition increases in consistency. This can affect the ability of the product to function as designed. It has been found that the results of this test correlate directly with the oil separation that occurs in 35-lb pails of grease during storage. The test method covers the determination of the tendency of a lubricating grease to separate oil during storage in both normally filled and partially filled containers.
This test is used extensively in the tribology field, petro-chemical industry, mechanical, energy resource, metallurgy, space flight, engineering areas, college and institute etc. The degree of friction, amount of wear and the relative wear preventive properties of lubricating fluids in sliding contact, under prescribed test conditions, can be determined by simulating, evaluating and testing almost all kinds of oil (high-class serial hydraulic oil, lubricant, combustion oil and gear oil) and materials (metal, plastic, coating, rubber, ceramic etc.).
Benzene distillation is suitable for setting specifications, for use as an internal quality control tool, and for use in development or research work on industrial aromatic hydrocarbons and related materials. This test method gives a broad indication of general purity and can also indicate presence of excessive moisture. The distillation of a 100-mL sample of industrial aromatic hydrocarbons and related materials is carried out via a carefully controlled distillation wherein temperature readings are noted for the first drop of distillate and when 5, 10, and each additional 10 up to 90, and 95 % of the sample has distilled over. The temperature corresponding to the dry point is also noted.
A knowledge of salt content is important in deciding whether or not the crude oil needs desalting. The efficiency of the process desalter can also be evaluated. Excessive chloride left in the crude oil frequently results in higher corrosion rates in refining units and also has detrimental effects on catalysts used in these units. The method is suitable for determining total halide with the concentration as 0.002-0.02 %(weight) in crude petroleum, topping crude petroleum, cracking residual oils and fuel oils. Also, the method can be used to determine marine pollution situations of steam turbine oils and bunker fuel oils.
This method is suitable for determining the ability to mutually separate oils and water with middle and high viscosity. This method has the guiding significance on lubricating oil demulsibility characteristics of water-in-oil fluid generated by water pollution and pumping, circulation turbulence. The method is used in testing medium and high-viscosity lubricating oils. In the special separating funnel, a specified volume of the sample and distilled water are stirred for 5min at certain speed at 82℃, it is then stewed for 5h after which the water volume, emulsion volume and water-in-oil percentage separated from oils are recorded.
Liquefied petroleum gases and their products of combustion must not be unduly corrosive to the materials with which they come in contact. The potential personnel exposure hazards of H2S also make the detection and measurement of hydrogen sulfide important, even in low concentrations. Vaporized LP gas is passed over moist lead acetate paper under controlled conditions. Hydrogen sulfide reacts with lead acetate to form lead sulfide which produces a coloration on the paper varying from yellow to black, depending upon the amount of hydrogen sulfide present.
• API Gravity of Crude Petroleum Products Testing
• Ash from Petroleum Products Testing
• Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index (CCAI)
• Cold Filter Plugging Testing
• Hydrocarbon Analysis Testing
• Impurities Testing
• Insoluble Impurities Testing
• Heavy Distillates Testing
• Metals in Crude Testing
• Petroleum Refinery Inspection Testing
• Petroleum Tank Storage Inspection Testing
• Petroleum Barge Inspection Testing
• Petroleum Cargo Inspection Services
• Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis Testing (DHA) Testing
• Determination of the Aromatic Content and Polynuclear Aromatic Content Testing
• Distillation Testing
• Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Greases and Oils Testing
• Existent Gums Testing
• Extractable Oil Content Testing (TPH)
• Freezing Point Testing
• Fuel Lubricity Testing
• Glycol Analysis Testing
• Glycols Testing
• Physical Testing
• Relative Density Testing
• Solidification Point Testing
• Stability of Distillate Oils Testing
• Trace Metals
• Water Content Testing
• Water Miscibility Testing
• Water Separability of Petroleum Oils and Synthetic Fluids Testing
• Water compatibility Testing
• Octane Number Testing
• Oxidation Stability Testing